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Alcoholism & Addiction

TEDS Examines Substance Abuse Characteristics for Treatment Admissions (Part II)

The Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) is a summary report of information on the demographic and substance abuse characteristics of 1.8 million annual admissions to treatment for abuse of alcohol and drugs in facilities that report to State data systems. This report covers admissions for 1997-2007.  (Read Part I of the study)

While many experts will suggest that there is no specific demographic that is more prone to substance abuse than others, data from this report suggests that there are trends in race and ethnicity use and abuse. This summary will examine those trends, as well as the types of services offered, therapies, sources of referral and employment status and educational level of patients.

Race/Ethnicity

Alcohol was the most commonly mentioned substance at treatment admission for all racial/ethnic groups except for those of Hispanic or Puerto Rican origin. The proportion of individuals reporting use of the next four most common substances – including opiates, marijuana, cocaine and stimulants – showed considerable variance according to racial/ethnic group.

For non-Hispanic Whites, alcohol was reported as the primary substances 44 percent of the time, followed by opiates at 19 percent, marijuana at 13 percent, cocaine at 10 percent and stimulants at 9 percent.

Alcohol was the primary use substance for 32 percent of non-Hispanic Blacks, while 26 percent reported cocaine as their primary use. Marijuana followed closely with 22 percent and opiates were the primary source for 15 percent. Only one percent of those in this ethnic group reported stimulants as their primary substance.

Persons of Mexican origin reported alcohol as the primary substance 36 percent of the time, followed by stimulants at 22 percent. Marijuana was used primarily by 19 percent, with opiates being the primary substance for 14 percent of this demographic. Cocaine was a primary substance for only eight percent of this group.

Individuals of Puerto Rican descent reported opiates as their primary substance 44 percent of the time. Alcohol was a distant second at 27 percent, followed by marijuana at 14 percent and cocaine at 12 percent. Stimulants were reported as a primary substance by only one percent of this demographic.

Alcohol was the primary substance for people of Cuban origin at 37 percent, followed by cocaine and marijuana each at 20 percent. Opiates were reported as the primary substance in 15 percent of cases and stimulants in four percent.
Types of Services

Individuals recorded as TEDS admissions received a variety of services depending upon their reason for admission, level of addiction and primary substance. Of those admitted in 2007, 62 percent entered ambulatory treatment, 20 percent entered detoxification and 18 percent entered rehabilitation/residential treatment.

Ambulatory admissions were largely dominated by primary marijuana users as they made up 83 percent of these admissions. The next largest group was admissions for inhalant use at 69 percent. Detoxification was dominated by primary tranquilizer admissions as 34 percent were admitted for tranquilizers, 33 percent for heroin and 30 percent for alcohol alone.

Rehabilitation/residential treatment received the largest proportion of admissions from primary smoked cocaine users at 32 percent. Admissions for PCP were at 29 percent, hallucinogens at 28 percent, methamphetamine/amphetamines at 26 percent, non-smoked cocaine at 25 percent, and sedatives at 24 percent.

Medication-assisted opioid therapy with methadone or buprenorphine was scheduled for 5 percent of TEDS admissions in 2007. This approach was also planned for 29 percent of primary heroin admissions and for 20 percent of admissions for opiates other than heroin.

Referral Methods

There are a number of sources by which an individual is referred for treatment, the most common method is the through the criminal justice system. In fact, 37 percent of admissions are referred through this process. Of those referred through the criminal justice system, 57 percent were the result of primary marijuana and methamphetamine/amphetamine use and 54 percent for PCP.

Of the TEDS admissions in 2007, 33 percent were self- or individual referrals. Primary heroin users were the most common at 58 percent, followed closely by primary opiate users other than heroin at 52 percent.

Employment Status/Educational Level

Employment status and educational level were also studied among TEDS admissions. In 2007, admissions for alcohol only were the most likely to be employed at 42 percent. The employed proportion was the lowest among those admitted for smoking cocaine and heroin.

The highest proportion not in the labor force was highest among heroin users at 48 percent and lowest for alcohol only at 28 percent. The educational level in 2007 was highest among admissions for sedatives at 33 percent, followed very closely by admissions for alcohol only at 32 percent.

 

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